ChilledCrys concentrates water and extracts salt. It achieves energy savings by avoiding evaporation.
Measure and treat sulfates, with options for high- & low-TDS
Many industrial processes produce or depend on sulfates, which are often regulated and require cost-effective management. We monitor and moderate sulfate levels in wastewater flows, in some cases without brine by-products and the expense of brine management.
Sulfates are widespread in many industries such as mining, oil & gas, fertilizer production, pulp & paper, and more. Although not generally very dangerous to humans, high sulfate levels are often regulated to protect the environment.
Sulfate challenges vary significantly. For example, one of the most important considerations in deciding how to manage a sulfate-laden wastewater flow is the total dissolved solids (TDS). Once our team completes a chemistry review, most of our clients’ sulfate removal needs can be addressed with one of a high- or low-TDS approach. We provide cost-effective solutions for both.
Solutions for High TDS
High TDS sulfate-laden waters (TDS~80,000–200,000 mg/L) often predominantly contain sodium sulfate: SO42- ~60,000–120,000 mg/L. To treat them, you can take advantage of two unique properties of sodium sulfate:
- Low osmotic pressure: concentrate sodium sulfate solutions to over 200,000 mg/L with our XtremeRO 1800 ultra-high pressure reverse osmosis systems
- Steep solubility-temperature relationship: crystallize sodium sulfate decahydrate in our SaltMaker ChilledCrys, reducing TDS to 100,000 mg/L and enabling additional cycles with XtremeRO 1800.
Approaches for Low TDS
Low TDS waters (1,500–5,000 mg/L) can still often be saturated in calcium sulfate: SO4 ~1,800 mg/L. If sulfate and metals are your only treatment concern, then you may be able to avoid brine management costs. Sulfates can sometimes be targeted for removal, without needing to treat all of the dissolved mass contained within an entire flow, keeping costs low.To optimize your sulfate management costs, you should consider:
- Avoiding the treatment of the entire flow—treating a portion and blending it is operationally less intensive and less costly, especially if the sulfate load varies seasonally.
- Avoiding brine management—liquid brine can result in high post-processing expense, or large storage volumes and associated liabilities. Although if you have a pond to store brine, we can assist in minimizing the additional volume.
Our Sulfate Technology Options
Our offerings for sulfate solutions comprise one or more of the following industrialized product lines:
- ScaleSense sulfate sensor: measure sulfates in real-time to enable precision blending, dosing, and performance-cost optimization on variable flows
- Nanofiltration (NF): reject sulfates to a concentrated brine, while passing sodium, chloride, and in some cases silica, through to a permeate, which in some cases may then be released.
- Reverse osmosis (RO): reject all TDS to a concentrated brine, generating freshwater permeate.
- BrineRefine phys-chem precipitation: precipitate sulfates as a solid filter cake. The precipitation pathway changes project-by-project, so let’s get started on an assessment now.
The details of your project matter. For example, for seasonal sulfate challenges, chemical precipitation treatment may keep capital investment low, with the operating costs of chemicals being present only for a part of the year. On the other hand, if the challenge is year-round, and there is a low-cost disposal option for a sulfate-rich brine, sulfate-rejecting membrane solutions may make more sense.
We can help you to make informed choices with economic analysis provided for all of the possible options for your sulfate challenges.
Contact us to learn more about our solutions and options and how sulfates may be most economically treated using industrial water treatment technologies.
BrineRefine is a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) that executes diverse chemical reactions efficiently and with precision.
Our UHP RO minimizes brine from tough industrial wastewaters and delivers the highest freshwater recovery in the industry.
Saltworks is thrilled to help clients lower installation and operational costs and future-proof their plants. This was recently demonstrated through delivery of a modular BrineRefine and XtremeUF system that enables the targeting of ions of value or concern with substantially reduced waste.
There are many sulfate treatments available, with different advantages and disadvantages. Factors for consideration include capital and operational costs, solid vs. liquid brine reject for disposal, if the need is seasonal or year-round, and suitability for adverse operating conditions.
Real-time measurement provides prompt feedback for controls. A real-time sensor can help to optimize your process, reduce risk, and minimize operational and maintenance demand. Saltworks has developed a new real-time sensor—that is simple and robust—to operate in the high-TDS range.
Saltworks completed an off-site FlexEDR Selective pilot test to treat flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater from a coal fired power plant in China. The objective was to reduce chlorides such that the FGD wastewater could be internally recycled and final treatment costs reduced notably.