SaltMaker ChilledCrys

Eutectic Chilled Crystallization

To produce solids, chilled crystallizers need to overcome a much lower thermodynamic barrier than evaporators. For very specific solution chemistries, chilled crystallization is a highly competitive option for zero liquid discharge. 

chilled crystallizer



zero liquid discharge crystallizer crystals



zld evaporator crystallizer


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Eutectic Chilled Crystallization

Eutectic Chilled Crystallization (ECC) cools a fluid, forcing salts to precipitate. Although it works only for specific salt-ion pairs (e.g. Na2SO4), it leverages the efficiency of Carnot cycles (1 unit of power equates to 3 units of heat), making it a great fit for some projects.


If a salt-ion pair in a concentrated brine has a steep temperature-solubility relationship (e.g. Na2SO4), then cooling will form salt precipitants. The salt can be separated out while the brine is recycled for further processing. Some salts produce hydrated crystals (e.g. Na2SO4⋅10H2O) which remove water during the crystallization process.


Saltworks holds proprietary technology to complete the chilled crystallization process in a closed loop. We package this with intelligent controls in our SaltMaker ChilledCrys system, which continually removes water and salt, enabling cost and energy efficient ZLD.

chiiled crystallizer chilled crys salt
chilled crystallizer chemistries

When to Use SaltMaker ChilledCrys? 

Chilled crystallization may be a viable option for zero liquid discharge (ZLD) or minimal liquid discharge (MLD)—if your solution consists predominantly (>90%) of the following ion pairs:

  • Sodium or potassium sulfate
  • Sodium or ammonium carbonate/bicarbonate

For example, cooling a solution of 200,000 mg/L sodium sulfate from 20°C to 10°C will precipitate over half of the sodium sulfate as a solid, which is then easy to separate. The result is a solution with a final concentration of 100,000 mg/L sodium sulfate and the emergence of ~50% of the salt as a solid. Every solution is different, our engineers can complete an assessment for yours. 

 ECC ≠ Freeze Crystallization

SaltMaker ChilledCrys uses chilled crystallization, which should not be confused with its cousin: freeze crystallization (FC). FC was worked on extensively in the 1950s and 60s.

  • In FC, small ice particles (known as frazil) are formed. Salt is rejected from the ice during freezing. The ice is then separated, washed, and thawed leaving pure water behind.
  • In ECC, rather than forming ice to remove water from the system, we use industrialized desalination technology, and then form specific salt-ion pairs when chilling, which are separated from the solution.

Contact us today with your water chemistry and treatment goals. Our experts can help you determine if SaltMaker ChilledCrys is the right fit for your MLD or ZLD project.

chilled crystallizer PFD chilledcrys

SaltMaker ChilledCrys Applications

  • Automotive
  • Brine Management
  • Cooling Tower Blowdown
  • Crystallization
  • Factory Wastewater
  • Flue Gas Desulfurization
  • Food & Beverage
  • Landfills
  • Lithium Extraction & Refining
  • Microelectronics
  • Minimal & Zero Liquid Discharge
  • Mining & Metals
  • Oil & Gas
  • Petrochemical & Refining
  • Pharmaceutical
  • Power Generation
  • Process Optimization
  • Pulp & Paper
  • Remediation
  • Solids Production for Landfilling

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